jueves, 21 de febrero de 2013

"We will not be silent. We are your bad conscience. The White Rose will not leave you in peace!"


Students Hans and Sophie Scholl were arrested and executed 70 years ago. The students and their friends had distributed leaflets calling on people to resist the Nazi regime. Today, they remain symbols of moral courage.

In February 1943, three young men - Hans Scholl, Alexander Schmorell and Willi Graf - were on their way into Munich's city center. All three belonged to the "Weiße Rose" ("White Rose") group which had dedicated itself to resisting Adolf Hitler's regime. The three men were carrying thousands of leaflets that listed the crimes of the Nazi regime. The students threw the pamphlets into mailboxes, hoping to appeal to people's humanity.
But Scholl and Schmorell had devised an even bolder plan: in the darkness of night, they painted the words "Down with Hitler" on the facade of the Bavarian State Chancellery. They were yet more courageous elsewhere, writing "Mass Murderer Hitler" on another wall. Scholl's younger sister, Sophie, was at home at Franz-Joseph-Strasse 13 - awaiting their safe return.
The path of resistance
Hans and Sophie Scholl lived with their family in the southern German city of Ulm when National Socialists took power in 1933. Both children were still in school at the time - Hans was born in 1918 and Sophie in 1921. Their father, Robert, earned enough to support his wife, Magdalena, and five children as a tax adviser. A liberal man, Scholl did not approve of Germany's new leader and he and his wife taught their children the importance of tolerance.
The Scholl children, however, were fascinated with National Socialism. Hans quickly made a name for himself in the Hitler Youth. At the age of 16 he commanded a group of 160 boys. Sophie also expressed a sympathy for National Socialism. She joined the "Union of German Girls," a Nazi youth organization for girls. Like her brother, Sophie soon had a leadership position in the group. Her contemporaries would later remember her as being "very enthusiastic, very fanatical about National Socialism."
By 1942, Hans and Sophie would no longer be counted among those supporting Hitler and his regime. The siblings took notice of how their Christian faith and moral convictions were not in line with the goals of National Socialism. Hans became convinced that he needed to do something against the Nazis. In 1942, Hans was called to the Eastern Front where he and other medicine students would experience the inhumanity of war for three months. He is also said to have been extremely concerned by the fate of deported Jews.
'Long live freedom'
A group willing to protest against the Nazi government formed around Hans at Munich University in 1942. Four medicine students - Scholl, Christoph Probst, Schmorell and Graf - and philosophy professor Kurt Huber formed the core of the group. Sophie would join them later in the year when she moved to Munich to study biology and philosophy.
The group called its publications "Flyers from the White Rose" and left the pamphlets in public spots. With the help of other resistance groups, the flyers, which included denunciations like "Every word that comes from Hitler's mouth is a lie," were also distributed outside of Munich.
Black-and-white photos of Hans and Sophie Scholl
Photo: picture-alliance/dpaHans and Sophie Scholl are among the few Germans who resisted the Nazi regime
The White Rose's sixth pamphlet would be its last. On February 18, 1943, Sophie and Hans were distributing the flyer at the university. Both of the siblings were discovered and arrested after she was caught throwing a pile of pamphlets from a balcony into the square below. The Gestapo, or secret police, then interrogated them.
Even in these desperate circumstances, both Hans and Sophie attempted to convince authorities that they had worked alone. Sophie told her interrogators that "she did not want to have anything to do with National Socialism." Evidence against the pair was regarded as sufficiently incriminating and on February 22, 1943 a so-called People's Tribunal led by Roland Freisler sentenced Hans Scholl, Sophie Scholl and Christoph Probst to death. They were executed a few hours later. Hans' last words were, "Long live freedom!"
Source: http://www.dw.de/sophie-hans-scholl-remain-symbols-of-resistance/a-16605080

Se cumplen 70 años de la ejecución de los hermanos Scholl

"¡Viva la libertad!", fueron las últimas palabras de Hans Scholl antes de que su cabeza rodara guillotinada por los nazis. Su hermana Sophie acababa de sufrir la misma suerte. Hace 70 años nacía así uno de los mayores símbolos de la resistencia heróica y pacífica contra el horror sembrado por Adolf Hitler
 Los hermanos Scholl habían tomado el camino más difícil: el de negarse a callar ante la dictadura nazi. Junto con otros estudiantes fundaron el movimiento de resistencia "La rosa blanca" en defensa de la paz y de la libertad. La iniciativa les costó la vida el 22 de febrero de 1943, cuando Hans tenía apenas 24 años, y Sophie, 21. 

Hasta su detención cuatro días antes, la mañana del 18 de febrero, la temible Gestapo apenas había logrado seguir la pista al grupo. "La rosa blanca" había intensificado su acción tras la derrota alemana en la batalla de Stalingrado repartiendo panfletos y escribiendo consignas contra Hitler en las paredes de Munich. 

La mañana de su detención, Hans y Sophie llegaron con un bolso lleno de octavillas a la Universidad de Munich, donde él estudiaba Medicina, y ella, Biología y Psicología. 

"Esta acción tuvo que estar guiada por una mezcla de sangre fría, temeridad, euforia y depresión", analiza hoy el periodista y experto en "La rosa blanca" Ulrich Chaussy en su nuevo libro "¡Viva la libertad! La historia de 'La rosa blanca' y sus miembros a través de documentos e informes". 

Cuando los hermanos comenzaron a lanzar los panfletos por las escaleras de la universidad fueron descubiertos por el intendente del centro, Jakob Schmid. Él fue quien los denunció ante la Gestapo. 

Cuatro días más tarde, ambos estaban muertos, al igual que su compañero Christoph Probst, de 23 años. A lo largo del año los nazis ejecutaron a los otros miembros de "La rosa blanca": Alexander SchmorellWilli Graf y Kurt Huber

Futuro, libertad y honor Huber había redactado la sexta proclama del movimiento, que Hans y Sophie estaban repartiendo en el momento de su detención. El texto sigue brillando por su lucidez y su valentía conmovedora: "Está en juego la lucha de cada uno de nosotros por nuestro futuro, nuestra libertad y nuestro honor". 

"Mi padre fue un héroe", afirma hoy el hijo de Huber, Wolfgang, que tenía cuatro años en el momento de la ejecución de Kurt. "Con mi familia hablamos poco sobre él. Eso es lo único que siempre estuvo claro", agregó. 

Tras ser detenidos, Hans y Sophie fueron interrogados por separado durante días por los comisarios Anton Mahler y Robert Mohr. La sentencia estaba escrita de antemano. "El jefe de circunscripción pide que la condena llegue los próximos días y que su ejecución se produzca cuanto antes", señala una instrucción del juzgado escrita incluso antes de que comenzara el proceso. 

El juez Roland Freisler condujo el juicio. "Lo hizo enfurecido, a los gritos, gesticulando de manera explosiva", relató más tarde un testigo. A los padres de los hermanos Scholl se les negó el acceso al tribunal. 

A las 12:45, Freisler anunció la condena a muerte, entre otras razones por "desmoralización del Ejército" y rechazó los pedidos de gracia. A las 17, los hermanos Scholl y Christoph serían guillotinados. Poco antes de la ejecución se permitió que los padres vieran a sus hijos por última vez. 

De esas últimas horas queda el testimonio del comisario Mohr, que con su interrogatorio aportó el material para la condena a Sophie Scholl y que murió en 1977 sin tener que rendir cuentas por sus actos, según el experto Chaussy. 

La profundidad de la fe 
Mohr visitó a Sophie dos horas antes de la ejecución y quedó impactado por la joven. Relató el encuentro de la siguiente manera: "pidió disculpas por estar llorando mientras me decía: 'acabo de despedirme de mis padres. Sepa comprender...'" 

"Tras unas palabras de consuelo me despedí de ella", recordó Mohr más tarde. Y agregó: "sólo puedo repetir que esta chica, al igual que su hermano, guardó una compostura que sólo puede explicarse por una mezcla de entereza, amor fraternal y una fe de extraña profundidad".

Fuente: http://www.lagaceta.com.ar/nota/533800/sociedad/legado-sophie-fue-mas-filoso-guillotina-nazi.html

jueves, 7 de febrero de 2013

Books Review: Los Nazis y el Mal. (The Nazis and the Evil)



Book Review by Aida C. Rodríguez (University of Barcelona). English.

Although over seventy-five years have gone by since Hitler's rise to power in Germany, the topic of Nazism and the Holocaust is a still relevant one, keeping alive the questions: How could this have happened? And what are the consequences of what took place? These questions are broached in Los nazis y el mal, la destrucciσn del ser humano, published by Editorial UOC under the imprint Niberta and with a prologue from the Chair in Ethics at the University of Barcelona, Norbert Bilbeny. What is at first a very wide-ranging issue is pared down to an exhaustive investigation of the concept of evil in the men of the Third Reich or what is tantamount to the same, the process of how human beings become evil as embodied in the Third Reich.

The author, Ana Rubio, holds a doctorate in Theology and a degree in Advanced Philosophical Studies, although her work mainly concentrates on her thoughts on Nazism and the Holocaust, subjects on which she speaks and writes articles for the media. In this book we see how her research primarily focuses on the search for a response to the question concerning the nature of man where evil is concerned.

We might think that the topic of Nazism is already overloaded with references and that it would be difficult to add any new elements to the thinking on this matter. However, just a few decades represent a brief interlude in history as a whole and the complexity of Nazi evil continues to trouble us; above all, it is terrifying to be aware of the actual degree of evil achieved by people who, like us, lived in cultured and developed societies and were therefore presumably civilised, transforming their inheritance of erudite emancipatory rationalism into merely instrumental reason at the service of evil.

Indeed, after Nazism the world asked, through the words of Adorno, how we should educate our children in order to prevent Auschwitz from being repeated. Undoubtedly, this is established as the primary objective for catharsis to begin. But the same question also comes under the umbrella of philosophy, art and government and they are all encompassed within one question: How should we understand our existence after Auschwitz? The world can never be the same again and the picture that the concentration camps in this Polish city drew still unsettles and disheartens us. We should not overlook the fact that other places before Auschwitz endured atrocities and that even since then human beings have continued destroying the lives of others in places like Siberia, Cambodia, Rwanda, Sarajevo and Palestine. It could be said that the symbol of Auschwitz and what it represents continues to appeal to us.

To illustrate her work, the author presents us time and time again with the writings and speeches of Hitler himself, analysing the theoretical construct that was to later gradually unfurl and be reproduced in German society. It is precisely this aspect that is the main original feature of Ana Rubio's work.

Thus, the book starts by describing how Nazism introduced its power over German society through its very structure. The globalization of Evil is the first of the four parts into which the book is divided and in it we essentially find a thorough description of the process of how society becomes evil, allowing us to talk about Nazi medicine, Nazi law, elaborate anti-Semitic racism, the religious dimension of Nazism or the Nazi use of language. We also read how in order to achieve its aims, Nazism knew very well how to bring together a variety of social frustrations - human miseries, we could even call them - to twist them to its benefit. Manufacturing a people, as Hitler planned, required deep planning and also a doctrine that would serve to resolve any doubts that existence entails.

The author's intention is, above all, to explore and separate the wheat from the chaff on the path towards evil, a path that ends in the destruction of the human being and starts in the creation of Nazi anthropology. As the author puts it in the second part of the book,globalization of the masses, this anthropology was able to produce a new race of dehumanised men and unquestionably left no aspect of individual and social human life to chance, defining in great detail the Aryan male as a finished product that does not need to change or evolve. This is how Nazi totalitarianism turned individuals into masses, dividing them up and classifying them in turn into the anonymous masses, or the people; the noble masses, who were the SS men and soldiers; and the surplus masses, which they made every effort to wipe out. Although each type can be differentiated from the others by its characteristics and functions, all three have in common the manipulation suffered, leading them to give themselves up, in one way or another, to the destiny that their mass-identity required, therefore causing the notion of the individual and his or her autonomy to disappear. The sacrifice of the individual in the name of the masses is a defining element of totalitarianism, as noted by Hannah Arendt in her work The Origins of Totalitarianism, which leads to the banalisation of evil, an idea that Arendt herself observed based on Eichmann's trial and which the author uses throughout her book. The further we become immersed in this banality the more we see how human evil becomes inhuman en route to a lack of conscience, with no going back. Dehumanised and transformed into part of a mass, victims and victimizers, there is nobody to appeal to who can help reconcile them, so they become natural enemies.

In the third part, "the consolidation of structural universal evil in concentrationary society" the matter is raised of the unique nature of Nazism which, in the author's view, does not revolve around its barbarism or the shocking number of victims that it left in its wake, but rather in how the process of the banalisation of evil and its global implementation within structures led to the dehumanisation of individuals in order to achieve an ultimate goal in which the idea of evil blossoms and takes on a specific form: Auschwitz and its realm. "The Holocaust was the architect of the biggest crisis that human beings have experienced throughout history: the crisis of faith" (p.149).

The last part of the book discusses "the globalisation of evil against the almighty God" to explain to us how faith in humanity and faith in God were quite frankly overturned by the horror of the extermination camps. Even so, in this landscape of evil we can still find the traces of humanity that thousands of people left behind to prove the existence of a form similar to that of the almighty which is the very antithesis to that imposed by the Nazis; it is transforming, human and compassionate, capable of catching the eye of another when he looks at it and recognises himself in it. This is why the last part of the book brings together the testimonies of victims and survivors who were there and discovered the almightiness of God.

Aida C. Rodrνguez (University of Barcelona)

martes, 5 de febrero de 2013

Victims of Nazi anatomists named

Liane Berkowitz (c) German Resistance Memorial CentreLiane Berkowitz was just 19 years old when she was executed by the Nazis.


Teenage victim: Liane Berkowitz was pregnant when she was imprisoned by the Nazi regime
Liane's grim story did not end in her death; her body was one of thousands that were delivered to anatomists and used for dissection and experimentation.
The identity of victims who met this same fate is now coming to light thanks to researchers who are scouring legal records to identify the victims of Nazi terror who ended up on anatomists' dissection tables.
Liane was one of 182 people whose corpses were claimed by the anatomy researcher Hermann Stieve, who, at the time, was a leading anatomist at the University of Berlin.
The full names of the people on "Stieve's list" - the vast majority of whom were women - has now been published by Dr Sabine Hildebrandt, a German-born anatomist based at the University of Michigan.
"Stieve himself put this list together in 1946," explained Dr Hildebrandt, who has been investigating the history of German anatomy for a decade. Stieve's own thorough record of his macabre work has enabled her to identify his victims.
Stieve's crimes have been exposed, but Dr Hildebrandt has now focused her efforts of telling the stories of his victims.
"I wanted to find out who these people were," Dr Hildebrandt told the BBC. "I wanted to make them known again."
'Doomed women'
Stieve was interested particularly in reproductive anatomy; a key reason why so many victims on his list were women.

Vera Obolensky. Photo: Ministère de la Défense - DMPA
"Before 1933, he was able to source the bodies of executed men, but no women; Germany was not executing women."

"Then, suddenly, during the Third Reich, women were being executed too."

About half of these women, including Liane Berkowitz, were executed for treason; some were betrayed to the Gestapo by fellow citizens for airing their anti-Nazi politics.

William Seidelman, former professor of medicine at the University of Toronto, has also spent years uncovering links between "medicine and murder" in the Third Reich.
In a 1999 paper in Dimensions: A Journal of Holocaust Studies he revealed some of the details of how Stieve worked closely with the prison in Berlin where prisoners were executed.
"When a woman of reproductive age was due to be executed, Stieve was informed, a date of execution was decided upon, and the prisoner told the scheduled date of her death," wrote Prof Seidelman.
"Stieve was particularly interested in the effects of stress and psychological trauma on the doomed woman's menstrual pattern.
"Upon the woman's execution, her pelvic organs were removed for examination. Stieve published reports based on those studies without hesitation or apology."
Stieve referred to the organs he used as "material". His publications during this time were some of the first to suggest that stress - in the form of being sentenced to death - disrupted a woman's menstrual cycle.
In a mission to reveal the human lives behind this "material", Dr Hildebrandt studied through the personal files of Stieve's victims, which are held at the Memorial Site for the German Resistance in Berlin.
She cross-checked each file against a copy of Stieve's list that is on file at the German Ministry of Justice, identifying every person on the list.
Dr Hildebrandt noted the correct spelling of the names of the 174 women and eight men on the list, their exact dates of birth and death, their nationality, the reason for their execution and any other biographical information she could find.
Some of the files contained personal letters expressing final wishes of condemned prisoners. "Some of them expressed wishes to be reunited with their families in death," said Dr Hildebrandt.
One of the letters was by Libertas Schulze-Boysen, a German-born resistance fighter who was once a member of the Nazi party, but left in 1937 and went on join the resistance and collect photographic evidence documenting National Socialist crimes of violence.
Libertas was arrested in September 1942 and sentenced to death for treason in December of the same year.
In a letter to her mother, she wrote: ''As a last wish I have asked that my 'material substance' be left to you. If possible, bury me in a beautiful place amidst sunny nature.''
Dark history
Dr Hildenbrandt said that her research made it "painfully clear" how little anatomists at the time were interested in the fate of the people whose bodies they were dissecting.
This left German anatomical research tainted by association.
Of the 31 anatomical departments at universities in Germany and its occupied territories between 1933 and 1945, Dr Hildebrandt found that "all of them - without exception - received bodies of the executed from execution chambers".
The issue only came to public attention in the past two decades.
Prof Seidelman explained that, in 1989, an anatomy lecturer at the University of Tubingen indicated that specimens he was showing were from Russian or Polish slave labourers executed during the Third Reich.
Prof Seidelman told the BBC: "The students were dismayed and demanded an explanation."
The university held a formal investigation, and all anatomy specimens of "suspect or uncertain origin" were buried in a special section of the Tubingen cemetery and, on July 8, 1990, a commemorative ceremony was held.
Several universities, have carried out formal investigations into their own anatomy departments' procurement of bodies during the Third Reich.
Many institutes in Austria were also involved, notably the University of Vienna.
"The University of Vienna had a special streetcar hearse that delivered the cadavers from the execution chamber of the regional court to the anatomy institute," explained Prof Seidelman.
Eduard Pernkopf, who was chairman of anatomy there between 1933 and 1945, left a printed legacy in the form of a now infamous anatomy tome. It is now understood that many of the incredibly detailed illustrations in Pernkopf's atlas depicted the bodies of victims of Nazi terror.
Prof Seidelman said that researchers were at the "very early stage of the journey of revealing the stories of those humans who became 'experimental material'".
"They became inanimate objects," he added.
Dr Hildebrandt agrees that the issue still casts a shadow on anatomy today, and while a great deal has been published about the crimes of the perpetrators, "German post-war anatomy was built in part on the bodies of [the] victims".
She added: "It's time to return the names to the numbers - to give faces and biographies to the so far anonymous victims of anatomy in the Third Reich in order to remember and honour their humanity and the iniquities they had to endure."

Nazi experiments

  • According to medical historian Paul Weindling, almost 25,000 victims of Nazi scientific experiments have now been identified.
  • Dr Weindling says there were different "phases" to the Nazis' experiments. The first was linked to eugenics and forced sterilisation.
  • The second phase coincided with the start of the war. "Doctors began experimenting on patients in psychiatric hospitals," Prof Weindling writes in a BBC report. "Sporadic experiments were made in concentration camps like Sachsenhausen near Berlin, and anthropological observations at Dachau."
  • The third phase began in 1942, when the SS and German military took greater control of the experiments. There was a surge in the numbers of experiments, with lethal diseases including malaria and louse-borne typhus administered to thousands of victims.
  • During a fourth phase in 1944-45, explains Dr Weindling, "scientists knew the war was lost but they continued their experiments".

Pernkopf's Atlas: A textbook tainted by Nazi association

Image from Pernkopf's Atlas of Anatomy
  • Eduard Pernkopf, chairman of anatomy at the University of Vienna between 1933 and 1945, was a member of the Nazi party whose sourcing of executed prisoners for dissections is on permanent record in his now infamous anatomical atlas.
  • The detailed illustrations in anatomical atlas that Pernkopf produced made it famous among anatomy students.
  • Pernkopf worked 18-hour days dissecting corpses while a team of artists created the images; he worked for over two decades on the book.
  • AS Sabine Hildebrandt revealed in a 2006 paper in the journal Clinical anatomy, as well as confirming Pernkopf's strong affiliation to the Nazi party, this project "revealed the delivery of at least 1,377 bodies of executed persons to the Anatomical Institute of Vienna" during the Third Reich. "The possible use of these bodies as models cannot be excluded for up to half of the approximately 800 plates in the atlas."
Source: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/health-21086388

La lista de Stieve: anatomía reproductiva. Mujeres condenadas


      Liane Berkowitz tenía sólo 19 años cuando fue ejecutada por los nazis. Fue arrestada en 1942 por la Gestapo, la policía secreta, cuando pegaba carteles con mensajes en contra de la propaganda nazi. Estaba embarazada, pero esto sólo postergó su ejecución hasta después de que diera a luz a su bebé.
La sombría historia de Liane no acabó con su muerte. Su cuerpo fue uno de los miles que fueron diseccionados por anatomistas y utilizados para sus experimentos.
La identidad de estas víctimas del horror nazi ahora sale a la luz gracias a los investigadores que rastrean los registros legales para identificar a quienes acabaron sobre las mesas de trabajo de los anatomistas del régimen.
Liane fue una de las 182 personas cuyos cadáveres fueron analizados por Hermann Stieve, quien en aquel momento era un renombrado experto de la Universidad de Berlín.
Los nombres completos de la llamada “lista de Stieve” –conformada principalmente por mujeres– acaban de ser publicados por Sabine Hildebrant, una anatomista alemana que trabaja en la Universidad de Michigan.
“El mismo Stieve elaboró esta lista en 1946″, explica la doctora Hildebrant, quien lleva una década investigando la historia de la anatomía alemana. El detallado registro de Stieve de su macabro trabajo ha permitido identificar a sus víctimas.
Hildebrant ha enfocado sus esfuerzos en contar las historias de estas personas.
“Quería saber quiénes eran”, dice la investigadora consultada por la BBC, “quería que fueran conocidas otra vez”.

TRAUMA Y ESTRÉS

Stieve estaba interesado especialmente en la anatomía reproductiva. Por eso la mayoría de sus víctimas fueron mujeres.
“Antes de 1933 podía estudiar los cadáveres de hombres que habían sido ejecutados, pero no mujeres, ya que Alemania no ejecutaba mujeres”.
“Pero repentinamente, durante el Tercer Reich, empezaron a hacerlo”.
Alrededor de la mitad de estas mujeres, entre ellas Liane Berkowitz, fueron condenadas a muerte acusadas de traición.
Algunas fueron denunciadas a la Gestapo por otros ciudadanos después de expresar sus ideas políticas contrarias al nazismo.
William Seidelman, exprofesor de medicina de la Universidad de Toronto, Canadá, también dedicó años a la investigación de los lazos entre “medicina y asesinato” en el Tercer Reich.
En un artículo académico de 1999 publicado en Dimensions: A Journal of Holocaust Studies, Seidelman reveló algunos detalles sobre cómo Stieve trabajó en estrecha colaboración con la prisión berlinesa en la que se realizaban las ejecuciones.
“Cuando una mujer en edad reproductiva iba a ser ejecutada, informaban a Stieve, se decidía una fecha y se comunicaba a la prisionera cuándo iba a morir”, escribió el profesor Seidelman.
“Stieve estaba particularmente interesado en los efectos del estrés y del trauma psicológico en los ciclos menstruales de las mujeres condenadas”.
“Tras la ejecución, los órganos pélvicos de la mujer eran extraídos para ser examinados. Stieve publicó informes basados en esos estudios sin ningún remordimiento ni disculpa”, dice Seidelman.
Stieve se refería a los órganos que analizaba como “material”. Sus publicaciones de entonces fueron las primeras en sugerir que el estrés –encarnado en nada menos que una sentencia de muerte– interrumpía el ciclo menstrual.
En su misión de revelar la vida de las personas detrás de este “material”, la doctora Hildebrandt revisó los archivos personales de las víctimas de Stieve, que se guardan en el museo del Monumento a la Resistencia Alemana de Berlín.
Hildebrant analizó cada archivo junto a una copia de la lista de Stieve que se mantiene en el Ministerio de Justicia alemán, e identificó a cada una de las personas.
Comprobó los nombres de 174 mujeres y ocho hombres de la lista, las fechas exactas de nacimiento y defunción, las nacionalidades, las razones de su ejecución y cualquier otra información personal que pudo encontrar.
Algunos de los archivos contienen cartas que expresan los últimos deseos de los prisioneros condenados, como los de “reunirse con sus seres queridos en la muerte”, según explica la investigadora.
Una de esas cartas era de Libertas Schulze-Boysen, quien había sido miembro del partido nazi, pero en 1937 se unió a la resistencia alemana y documentó y recolectó evidencias fotográficas de los crímenes del nacionalsocialismo.
Libertas fue arrestada en septiembre de 1942 y condenada a muerte por traición en diciembre del mismo año.
En una carta a su madre, escribió: “Como último deseo he pedido que te entreguen mi ‘sustancia material’. Si es posible, entiérrame en un lugar hermoso, soleado y rodeado de naturaleza”.
Hildebrant dice que su investigación ha dejado “dolorosamente” en evidencia lo poco que interesaba entonces a los anatomistas el destino de las personas cuyos cuerpos estaban diseccionando.
Por asociación, es una mancha en la investigación anatómica alemana.
Muchas de las víctimas de la lista de Stieve eran mujeres y miembros de la resistencia, como Véra Obolensky y Libertas Schulze-Boysen.
Muchas de las víctimas de la lista de Stieve eran mujeres y miembros de la resistencia, como Véra Obolensky y Libertas Schulze-Boysen.
De los 31 departamentos de estudios de anatomía en Alemania y los territorios ocupados entre 1933 y 1945, la experta encontró que “todos ellos, sin excepción, recibieron cadáveres de las cámaras de ejecución”.
Este tema no acaparó la atención pública sino hasta hace dos décadas.
El profesor Seidelman cuenta que en 1989 un académico anatomista de la Universidad de Tubinga indicó en una conferencia que los especímenes que estaba mostrando eran de trabajadores esclavos polacos y rusos ejecutados durante el Tercer Reich.
Según explicó Seidelman a la BBC, “los estudiantes estaban conmocionados y exigieron una explicación”.
La universidad inició una investigación formal. Todas las muestras anatómicas de “origen incierto o sospechoso” fueron sepultadas en una sección especial del cementerio de Tubinga y el 8 de julio de 1990 se realizó una ceremonia conmemorativa.
Varias universidades han realizado investigaciones formales sobre la obtención de cuerpos durante el auge del nazismo en sus propios departamentos de anatomía.
Instituciones de Austria también estuvieron involucradas.
“La Universidad de Viena tenía un tranvía fúnebre especial que transportaba los cadáveres de la sala de ejecución del juzgado regional al instituto de anatomía”, dice el profesor Seidelman.
Eduard Pernkopf, que fue director de anatomía entre 1933 y 1945, dejó un legado impreso en un tomo académico de dudosa fama. Muchas de las ilustraciones increíblemente detalladas del atlas de Pernkopf retratan los cuerpos de las víctimas del terror nazi.
Seidelman dice que los investigadores están aún en “una fase muy temprana del proceso de revelar las historias de aquellas personas que se convirtieron en ‘material experimental’”.
“Se convirtieron en objetos inanimanos”, dice.
Hildebrant coincide en que este tema aún proyecta una sombra sobre la ciencia anatómica y opina que “la anatomía alemana de posguerra se construyó en parte sobre los cuerpos de las víctimas”.
“Es hora de devolver los nombres a los números, de dar rostros y biografías a las víctimas de la anatomía en el Tercer Reich para recordar su humanidad y las injusticias que tuvieron que enfrentar”, concluye.


  • EXPERIMENTOS NAZIS
  • De acuerdo al historiador médico Paul Weindling, casi 25.000 víctimas de los experimentos científicos nazis han sido identificadas.
  • Weindling dice que hubo distintas "fases" de esos experimentos. La primera estuvo ligada a la eugenesia y a la esterilización forzosa.
  • La segunda fase coincidió con el inicio de la guerra. "Los doctores comenzaron a experimentar con pacientes de hospitales psiquiátricos", escribió el profesor Weindling en un reportaje de la BBC. "Se hicieron experimentos esporádicos en campos de concentración como el de Sachsenhausen, cerca de Berlín, y observaciones antropológicas en Dachau."
  • La tecer fase comenzó en 1942, cuando las SS (la policía militar nazi) y el ejército alemán tomaron el control de la experimentación científica. Aumentó el número de pruebas en los que se inocularon enfermedades mortales como malaria o tifus exantemático epidémico a miles de víctimas.
  • Durante una cuarta fase en 1944-45, explica el doctor Weindling, "los científicos sabían que la guerra estaba perdida pero continuaron con sus experimentos".
  • Atlas

  • EL MACABRO ATLAS DE PERNKOPF
  • Eduard Pernkopf, director de Anatomía de la Universidad de Viena entre 1933 y 1945 y miembro del Partido Nazi, utilizó cadáveres de prisioneros ejecutados para sus estudios y lo registró en su atlas de anatomía.
  • Las detalladas ilustraciones que contiene lo hicieron famoso entre los estudiantes de anatomía.
  • Pernkopf trabajó 18 horas diarias diseccionando cadáveres mientras un equipo de artistas creaba las imágenes. Le llevó más de veinte años terminar su libro.
  • Tal como Sabine Hildebrandt escribió en un artículo de 2006 en la publicación Clinical anatomy, este proyecto reveló "el traslado de al menos 1.377 cuerpos de personas ejecutadas al Instituto Anatómico de Viena" durante el Tercer Reich.
  • "El posible uso de esos cadáveres como modelos no puede descartarse en al menos la mitad de las casi 800 láminas del atlas".
Fuente: http://www.elmostrador.cl/noticias/mundo/2013/02/04/las-victimas-olvidadas-de-la-anatomia-nazi/